Cultural Landscape Muskau Arch

Collection and integration of historical-cultural landscape features as a basis for a cross-border development concept – funded by the German Federal Environmental Foundation DBU (2015 to 2018)

The focus of the project was the Muskau Arch as a cross-national cultural landscape. The region has been formed by various geological processes and the use of its raw materials. Today, the region has characteristic landscapes that are valuable retreats for animals and plants. This cultural landscape also includes gardens and parks deliberately designed to enhance the landscape, as well as the natural spaces surrounding them. As part of the DBU project, cultural landscape areas worthy of protection were analysed from the point of view of nature conservation, geology, garden design, preservation of historical monuments and the tourist infrastructure.

The data collected culminated in a framework plan which may provide a multidisciplinary and cross-border basis for future planning by authorities, municipalities, associations or other stakeholders. Using the data collected as a basis, approaches were developed to ensure compatible tourism development in the region, and recommendations were made for the preservation or restoration of cultural-historical landscape elements, as well as for sensitive elements in need of protection. The aim of the framework plan is to take a holistic view of, protect and develop the cultural landscape across several borders.

Muskau Park – Protection, Development and Promotion of European Cultural Heritage

With the signing of the partnership agreement between the two institutions, an INTERREG project for the current funding period was launched in 2016 under the priority theme “Common Natural and Cultural Heritage”. It combined various measures in the entire Muskau Park, which were implemented on both the Polish and German sides in two work phases through autumn 2018. Various investments were planned in the first phase.

This involved the reconstruction and equipment of the lost part of the Spa House, which belonged to the historical development of the so-called Spa Park (an area of the Muskau Park on the German side south of the Castle Park), and the restoration of the viaduct on the Polish side, one of three preserved architectural objects in the eastern part of the park. Documentation, organisation and maintenance work was also carried out on the Polish side in the area of the historical tree nursery and its surroundings as well as in the tree population which has been preserved in this area of the park.

Project duration

01.10.2016 – 30.10.2018

Total project costs


European Union funding

85 %

Co-operation programme INTERREG
Poland-Saxony 2014-2020

Leadpartner: National Heritage Board of Poland,
ul. Kopernika 36/40, 00-924 Warsaw

Projektpartner: “Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau” Foundation,
Orangerie, 02953 Bad Muskau

The second phase of the programme included research. This consisted of archival research to deepen the understanding of the park’s history, particularly from 1847 to 1881, when Prince Frederick of the Netherlands was the owner of Muskau Park. In the Polish side of the park, archaeological surveys were conducted on the former infrastructure of the nursery, such as the farm buildings.

A scientific conference, workshops, exhibitions and open-air events have been organised by the project partners to present the research results and raise awareness of the historical park. Public relations campaigns therefore accompanied the various project phases. The aim of the project was to develop the cultural infrastructure and make the historically significant cultural heritage in Muskau Park in the German-Polish border region more accessible.


Partnerships with the “Alexander von Humboldt Professorship for Modern Writing Culture and European Knowledge Transfer” at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (2016-2020)

Students will take part in a seminar on various literary genres of the Pückler period and on Pückler’s literary oeuvre and present their findings in Muskau Park. An excursion through the park will also bring you closer to the garden artist. There have already been workshops on the following topics: 7 /8 July 2016 “Hermann von Pückler-Muskaus ‘Andeutungen über Landschaftsgärtnerei’ im Kontext der Gartenliteratur des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts (‘Hermann von Pückler-Muskaus’ Hints on Landscape Gardening’) in the Context of 18th and 19th Century Garden Literature 6 /7 July 2017 “Literarische Botanik – Botanische Literatur der Pücklerzeit” (Literary Botany – Botanical Literature of the Pückler Period); 18/19 October 2018 „Literatur und Landschaft. Hermann von Pückler-Muskaus Werk und Wirkung im Kontext“ (Literature and Landscape. Hermann von Pückler-Muskau’s Work and Effect in Context)

Partnership with the Dresden University of Applied Sciences (since 2015)

The partnership includes the conception, development and use of a virtual model of the Muskau Park. During the project, a geodetic basis and a tree register are to be created. The foundation supports seminars and excursions with hands-on assessments and transfers the data collected there into the digital plan.


The dazzling personality of Prince Pückler makes subsequent owners of Muskau Park seem to fade into the background. Wrongly. Upon closer examination, it becomes apparent that they maintained everything that had been created during difficult economic times. Last but not least, they had the challenging task of designing unfinished parking areas in Pückler’s style. In the process, of course, they also left their own marks. So it’s high time we paid more attention to them.

When Muskau Park was Royal. Prince Friedrich of the Netherlands and Muskau’s rise to a European royal residence

In 1846 Prince Friedrich of the Netherlands (1797-1881) bought the Muskau estate. According to Pückler, this gave it a financially strong owner, and more importantly one of royal status. Little was known about the development phase under the Oranier Prince. His influences on Muskau Park, the castle grounds and his status have now been scientifically researched. So the question arose as to what effect the close relationship between the Dutch and Prussian royal families and the associated exchange of architects, garden artists and sculptors had. This research project was part of the INTERREG project “Muskau Park – Protection, Development and Promotion of European Cultural Heritage”. In 2018, the first results of the research were presented in a special exhibition, which will be supplemented by a publication.

The Counts of Arnim as Muskau Lords of State

After Prince Friedrich of the Netherlands, the Counts of Arnim took over Muskau Park in 1883. They lasted far longer there than Pückler: His 34 years of ownership can’t match their 62 years, over three generations. Several of the buildings that still stand today were built or rebuilt during this period. There were also changes in the park that are still visible. An example of this is the Rhododendron valley from the 1920s. Moreover, many paths and observation points were first created under the Arnims or had been given their current names. Although the interest of the public has mainly focused on Pückler’s era so far, the period of the Counts of Arnim in particular still offers plenty of opportunities for research, including some unexpected developments. In the summer of 2018, this research led to a special exhibition; an accompanying publication with further in-depth research results is in preparation.


In 2003 the traditional “Muskauer Schule” (Muskau School) moved into the north wing of the New Castle. It continued the tradition of education in the Fürst-Pückler-Park. On the one hand the aim was to ensure qualification of Employment Support staff for ongoing activities in the park. On the other hand, the Muskau School should help to reduce the lack of specialist knowledge in the preservation of garden monuments and cultural landscapes. Usually twice a year, Muskau Park has since been the backdrop for garden conservation conferences on various topics. Next date: 14  - 16 November 2019 Decorative and Fragile – Ceramics in Historical Gardens


+ Series “Muskauer Schriften” (Muskau Writings)

  • Die ‚ornamental farm‘. Gartenkunst und Landwirtschaft, (The ‘Ornamental Farm’. Garden Art and Agriculture”) Symposium 15.−17. October 2009, Muskauer Schriften, vol. 7, Zittau 2010, 220 p., ill., €14.95 (ISBN: 978-3-929744-54-5)
  • Michael Rohde (Editor): Pflege historischer Gärten. Theorie und Praxis(Maintenance of Historical Gardens. Theory and Practice), Muskauer Schriften, Vol. 6, Leipzig 2008, 560 p., num. col. ill. [vergriffen]
  • Erika Schmidt: „Abwechselung im Geschmack“. Raumbildung und Pflanzenverwendung beim Stadtparkentwurf, Deutschland 19. Jahrhundert (“Variety in Taste”. Landscape Development and Plant Usage in Urban Park Design in 19th Century Germany), Muskauer Schriften, vol. 5, Zittau 2004, 168 p., ill., €14.95 (ISBN: 3-929744-10-4)
  • Neorenaissance – Ansprüche an einen Stil. Zweites Historismus-Symposium Bad Muskau (Neo-Renaissance – Demands on a Style. Second Symposium of Historicism in Bad Muskau), Muskauer Schriften, vol. 4, Dresden 2001, 260 p., num. ill., €9.95 (ISBN: 90-5705-170-2)
  • Clemens Alexander Wimmer: Bäume und Sträucher in historischen Gärten. Gehölzverwendung in Geschichte und Denkmalpflege (Trees and Shrubs in Historic Gardens. The Use of Trees and Shrubs in History and Monument Conservation), Muskauer Schriften, Vol. 3, Dresden 2001 [vergriffen]
  • Michael Rohde: Von Muskau bis Konstantinopel. Eduard Petzold ein europäischer Gartenkünstler 1815–1891 (From Muskau to Constantinople. The European Garden Artist Eduard Petzold 1815-1891), Muskauer Schriften, vol. 2, Dresden 1998, 324 p., num. col. ill., €14.95 (ISBN: 90-5705-119-2)
  • Stilstreit und Einheitskunstwerk. Internationales Historismus-Symposium Bad Muskau 20. bis 22. Juni 1997 (A Stylistic Dispute and a Unified Work of Art. International Historicism Symposium Bad Muskau 20 to 22 June 1997), Muskauer Schriften, Vol. 1, Dresden 1998, 240 pages, ill., €9.95 (ISBN: 90-5705-085-4)

+ Single Publications

  • Kerstin Volker-Saad: „So reichlich bevölkert wie im Paradiese“. Hermann Fürst von Pückler-Muskaus abenteuerliche Reise durch Nubien und den Sudan im Jahr 1837 (“As Abundantly Populated as in Paradise”. Hermann Prince of Pückler-Muskaus Adventurous Journey through Nubia and Sudan in 1837),Bad Muskau 2017, 68 p., num. ill., €12.90 (ISBN: 978-3-9819414-1-8)
  • Der Muskauer Park. Ein Spaziergang auf fürstlichen Spuren (Muskau Park. A Walk in the Royal Footsteps), Bad Muskau 2017 (2nd act. edition), 142 p., num. ill., €7.50
  • „Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau“ Foundation/Foundation for Landscape Studies New York/Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection Washington, D. C./Linda B. Parshall (ed.): Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau. Letters of a Dead Man, Ex horto Dumbarton Oaks Texts in Garden and Landscape Studies, Washington D. C. 2016, 754 p., num. ill., €67.50
  • 20 Jahre Stiftung „Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau“. Vom Fragment zur binationalen Welterbestätte 1993–2013 (20 Years of the “Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau” Foundation. From Fragment to Binational World Heritage Site 1993-2013), Bad Muskau 2016 (2nd unchanged edition), 156 p., num. ill., €14.90
  • Ansichten aus dem Park zu Muskau (Views from the Muskau Park (reprint), Bad Muskau 2016 (2nd revised edition), 48 p., full page ill., €29.90
  • Ansichten aus dem Park zu Muskau (Views from the Muskau Park (reprint), Bad Muskau 2015, 48 p., full page ill., €29.90 ill., €29.90
  • 20 lat Fundacji „Park Księcia Pücklera Bad Muskau”, Od fragmentu do transgranicznego miejsca światowego dziedzictwa 1993–2013 (20 Years of the “Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau” Foundation. From Fragment to Binational World Heritage Site 1993-2013), Bad Muskau 2013, 156 p., num. ill., €12.90
  • 20 Jahre Stiftung „Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau“. 20 Jahre Stiftung „Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau“. Vom Fragment zur binationalen Welterbestätte 1993–2013 (20 Years of “Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau” Foundation. From Fragment to Binational World Heritage Site 1993-2013), Bad Muskau 2013, 156 p., num. ill. [out of print]. [vergriffen]
  • Kerstin Volker-Saad: Auf nach Ägypten! Zwei Meister ihres Faches: Der Maler David Roberts und der Reiseschriftsteller Hermann Fürst von Pückler-Muskau 1837–1839 (Let’s go to Egypt! Two Masters of their Trade: The Painter David Roberts and the Travel Writer Hermann Fürst von Pückler-Muskau 1837-1839), Bad Muskau 2013, 64 p., num. ill., €12.90 (ISBN: 978-3-9819414-0-1)
  • Der Muskauer Park. Der Muskauer Park. Ein Spaziergang auf fürstlichen Spuren (Muskau Park. A Walk in Royal Footsteps), Bad Muskau 2010, 140 p., num. ill. [out of print]. [vergriffen]
  • Die Muskauer Blutbuche. Aus dem Leben einer Baumpersönlichkeit (The Muskau Copper Beech. The Life of a Tree, Bad Muskau 2010, 24 p., ill. [vergriffen]
  • Fürst Pückler. Parkomanie in Muskau und Branitz, Ein Führer durch seine Anlagen in Sachsen, Brandenburg und Thüringen (Prince Pückler. Parkomania in Muskau and Branitz, A Guide through his Parks in Saxony, Brandenburg and Thuringia), Hamburg 2006, 270 p., num. ill. [out of print]. [vergriffen]
  • Werner Manno, Cornelia Wenzel: Jacob Heinrich Rehder 1790–1852. Alfred Georg Rehder 1863–1949, Bad Muskau 2002, 20 p., ill., €2.50
  • Heidrun Laudel: Orangerie im Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau (Orangery in Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau), Große Baudenkmäler Issue 515, München/Berlin 1997, 30 p., num. ill., €1.00
  • Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau, annual edition 1994, Bad Muskau 1994, 16 p., ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]

+ Exhibition Catalogues

  • Siegfried Kohlschmidt: Ankerglas Bernsdorf/Oberlausitz. Design für den täglichen Gebrauch (Anchor Glass Bernsdorf/Oberlausitz. Design for Everyday Use), Bad Muskau 2016, 60 p., num. ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]
  • Fürst Pückler Park Bad Muskau Foundation/Institute of Visual Arts of the Art Faculty of Zielona Góra University/Lebus State Museum Zielona Góra (ed.): Ogrody/Gärten (Gardens), Bad Muskau/Zielona Góra 2016, 102 p., ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]
  • Armin Mueller-Stahl: Menschenbilder/Obrazy ludzi. Malerei und Druckgrafik/Malarstwo i grafika(Portraits of People. Paintings and Prints), Bad Muskau 2015, 74 p., num. ill. [out of print]. [vergriffen]
  • Das schönste Glas der Lausitz 1947–1975 (The Most Beautiful Glass of Lusatia 1947-1975), Bad Muskau 2014, 106 p., num. ill. [out of print]. [vergriffen]
  • Aleksandra Mańczak: Im Angesicht der Natur/Wobec natury (In the Face of Nature), Bad Muskau 2014, 32 p., ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]
  • “Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau” Foundation/Freundeskreis Historica Bad Muskau e. V. (Ed.): Lucy von Barclay de Tolly. Eine Muskauer Malerin (Lucy von Barclay de Tolly. A Painter from Muskau),, Bad Muskau 2011, 96 p., num. ill., €15.80
  • Inspiration Pückler. Realistische Malerei und Grafik von Gerd Hallaschk im Marstall im Muskauer Park 6.4. bis 3.6.2007 (Realistic Painting and Graphic by Gerd Hallaschk in the Royal Stables in Muskau Park 6.4. to 3.6.2007), Bad Muskau 2007, 12 p., ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]
  • Englandsouvenirs. Fürst Pücklers Reise 1826–1829 (Souvenirs of England. Prince Pückler’s Journey 1826-1829), Zittau 2005, 200 p. num. col. ill., €28.00 (ISBN: 3-929744-18-X)
  • Dietmar Schenk, Cordula Zeidler: Von der Neumark ins Rheinland. Der Gartenarchitekt und Karl-Foerster-Schüler Gottfried Kühn (From the Neumark to the Rhineland. The Garden Architect and Karl-Foerster-Schüler Gottfried Kühn), Bad Muskau 2002, 16 p., ill. [out of print] [vergriffen]
  • Nicole Berthy, Michael Brey: Ich bin ein Kind der Phantasie – beweglich wie der Schmetterling. Fürst Pückler und die Frauen (I am a Child of Imagination – as Agile as a Butterfly. Prince Pückler and Women), Berlin 1999, 96 p., ill., €24.55 (ISBN: 3-00-005493-6)